Labor Studies Center
The center can
help you with research by accessing the vast collection of databases and
resources at Virginia Commonwealth University. We’ve conducted studies
on issues that significantly impact labor and management relations such
as pay equity, team environment, collective bargaining, and performance
appraisal systems. Listed below are publications on the research that
has been conducted concerning these topics.
For articles relating to:
Compensation and Benefits |
ESOPs | Human Resource Management
| Labor Management Relations
Compensation and Benefits
Stock Option use for Compensation, International
HR Journal, V.
7, (No. 4), Winter 1999, pp. 59-62.
This article addresses companies contemplating
using stock options outside the U.S. and their need to understand
what may constitute barriers to their successful adoption of
stock options, including aspects of national culture and the
status of the local economy.
Performance Appraisals and
Pay-for-Performance Plans. Journal
of Compensation and Benefits, V. 12,
(No. 3), November/December 1996, pp. 41-46.
Studies show that many employees fear and distrust performance
appraisals. The paper discusses common problems and trends associated
with employee evaluations, how Human Resources can strengthen
the performance appraisal process, and what actions can be taken
to increase the functionality of pay-for-performance incentive
plans. Many employees view performance appraisals as nothing
more than a year-end obligation that has little true meaning.
Strategic Compensation Management: The Changing Patterns of
Pay and Benefits. Journal of Compensation and Benefits,
V. 12 (No.2), September/October 1996, pp. 34-35.
still base their reward systems on the 1950's compensation model
made popular during the brief period when U.S. companies dominated
the world. With todays increasingly competitive market,
this paper discusses the new trends in pay and benefit structures,
which are increasingly linked to the organizations long-term
strategic planning objectives.
The Complex Issues of Pay Equity. Journal
of Compensation and Benefits, V. 12 (No.4), January/February
1997, pp. 34-39.
is a difficult and growing issue in companies today. Logically
and simplistically, companies prefer to obtain their employees
maximum output and employees want fair wages for this desired
level of productivity. The paper discusses the different perspectives
concerning pay equity from the employer and employee standpoint.
The Use of Electronic Data Bases to Determine Compensation
and Benefits. Journal of Compensation and Benefits,
May/June 1995, V. 10 (No.6), pp. 47-51.
employer, with the resources to conduct full-scale salary surveys,
can use electronic databases to determine if its compensation
structure differs materially from those of its competitors.
Publicly available electronic databases, such as those maintained
by the federal government or by private vendors, provide a vast
amount of salary information, including information on wage
of Behavioral Finance and Retirement
Education, Journal of Compensation
and Benefits, V.16 (No. 3), May/June 2000. pp. 41-47
This paper discussed the transition from defined
benefit to defined contribution pension plans in the retirement
benefit arena, and the shift in financial planning responsibility
that follows such change. The issue is analyzed through
behavioral finance ideology, which describes individual investors
as often unable to make sound investment decisions. In
order to avoid poor management of assets, and consequent loss
in future retirement income of employees that participate in
defined contribution plans, program sponsors are urged to provide
retirement education to encourage workers to plan and
save for retirement.
Contribution Plans Worldwide: Acknowledging Ethnopsychological
Variables and Enabling Workers, International HR Journal,
V. 9 (No. 2), Summer 2000, pp. 13-20
The paper discusses the growth of defined contribution
plans in public and private pension schemes worldwide, as a
consequence of social security reforms, growth of continent
work and work force mobility and as a strategy adopted by corporations
to share the investment risk and responsibility with employees.
Compensation and Stock Indexing: A Long-Term
Approach, Journal of Compensation and Benefits.
V. 14 (No.3), November/December 1998, pp. 19-23.
This Article examines the continuing debate
about the effectiveness of use of stock options in executive
compensation packages. among the findings discussed are:
the assumed importance of the CEO to the financial success of
the company; the method used to measure CEO performance
and the underlying assumptions that accompany this process;
and identifies several options available to companies seeking
executive compensation strategies that are compatible with stockholder
interests, such as longer term stock and salary strategies.
CEO Performance to Corporate Performance: Examining Intangible
Metrics of Shareholder Value.”
Trumble, Robert R. and DeLowell, Angela N. Journal of
Compensation and Benefits, Vol.17, (no.6).
report outlines the conditions necessary to quantify, measure, and
report performance on relevant tangible and intangible criteria
and, perhaps, to draw a more substantial connection between
executive compensation, corporate performance, and CEO influence.
“Global CEO Compensation Analysis: Applying the CEO- Corporate
Performance Model.” Trumble, Robert
R. and DeLowell Angela N. International HR Journal, Vol. 11
report discusses applying the CEO-Corporate Performance Model
introduced in “Connecting CEO Performance to Corporate
Performance” to international organizations.
"Retirement Benefits: Educational Complexities and
Options" Trumble, Robert R.
and Lawson, Gregory. Journal of Compensation and Benefits,
article has been developed from research of area retirement
benefits. It looks at the significance of behavioral finance,
current employee financial education for retirement, and external
tools and guides to facilitate this education.
Employee Stock Ownership Plans ESOP
Tax incentives: New Proposals Enhance a Powerful Financial Tool,
Journal of Taxation of Employee Benefits, November/December
1999 pp. 160-163
ESOPs can provide tax incentives to not only
the sponsoring company and the employees, but also to selling
shareholders in closely held companies, the existing stockholders,
and the nation as a whole
Benefits of ESOPs, Journal of Compensation and Benefits,
V.15 (No.3), November/December 1999, pp. 10-13
ESOPs, which are often established either in
addition to existing benefit plans or replace other defined
contribution plans, offer many benefits to both sponsoring employers
and participating employees.
ESOPs: Variations in Complexities, International
HR Journal, Summer 2000, pp. 5 -8
ESOPs have been growing in popularity in the
U.S. for several decades. Changes in the global economy
have opened the door for the introduction of global ESOPs
Stock Ownership Plans: International Variations, International
HR Journal, Spring 2001, pp. 11-14
The decision of whether an ESOP will be successful
is examined using Geert Hofstede's characteristics that define
a culture - individualism vs. collectivism, uncertainty avoidance,
quality vs. quantity, and power distance.
Valuation Techniques and Strategies: ESOP Complexities,
Valuation Strategies, Vol. 4 (No. 5), May/June 2001, pp.
ESOP shares must be valued fairly to ensure
that both the employer and employees get the maximum benefit
from this powerful financial tool. Many variables must
be considered when valuing shares, and some controversy still
exist as to the proper methods to apply to ensure fairness.
“Employee Stock Ownership Plans: International
Variations”, Trumble, Robert R. and
Hawkridge, Karen. International HR Journal, Vol. 10
report examines the four points that can guide the decision of
whether an ESOP will be successful. Those four points are:
individualism vs. collectivism, uncertainty avoidance, quantity
vs. quality, and power distance.
“Financial Valuation Techniques and Strategies:
ESOP Complexities”, Trumble, Robert
R. and Knight, David L. Valuation Strategies, Vol. 4 (no.
article looks at the complexities of valuation of ESOP shares and
discusses methods that could be applied to ensure fairness.
Assisted Performance Appraisal Systems. Journal of
Compensation and Benefits, V.12 (No.6), 1997, pp. 34-35.
This article addressed the growing importance of conducting meaningful
evaluations and whether managers are using computers to conduct
performance appraisals. Organizations should consider using these
systems as they allow instant update of performance incidents
as they occur, assist in defining job descriptions, and the creation
of effective appraisal forms.
Cultural Integration: An Examination of Success for United States
and Japanese Business Mergers. International
Journal of Management, V.13 (No.1), March 1996, pp.52-59.
whether foreign or domestic, often decide to integrate as a
quick method to obtain new markets, acquire new technology,
expand operations, or use excess investment capital. However,
one study concluded that about two-thirds of merged companies
would have made more money if the firms had instead invested
their capital into certificates of deposit. This paper examines
the current research issues involved with merging with a Japanese
firm. Areas that will be explored will be common pitfalls of
all mergers as well as the large amount of cultural considerations
that should be addressed.
Long-term Horizon and Financial Management: Japans Competitive
Advantage over the United States . Management Research
News, V.19 (No.7), pp. 8-22.
dimension of a country is a key determinant of the time horizon
prevalent in the business sector. The long-term horizons of
Japan compared with the short-term horizons of the United States
are integral parts of their distinct business ideologies. There
is a direct impact on their respective financial practices.
A comparative analysis of the financial management ideologies,
practices and techniques, within the framework of time horizon,
offers an explanation of Japans inordinate economic success
in the global market.
Significant Historic Origins that Influenced the Team Concept
in Major Japanese Companies. Journal of Applied
Business Research. 1996, pp.115-129
historical aspects of the Japanese people reinforce their continued
inclination to conform to societal norms at the cost of their
own individualism. We look at this unique characteristic of
their country, often referred to as a need for dependence versus
the need for independence, with a historic perspective. We seek
to identify these historical roots and its ramifications on
the successful team-based management style.
Successful Management of the OSHA Process .
Industrial Management, V.10 (No.3), May/June1995, pp.16-19.
is often unprepared to deal with regulation by the Occupational
Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Most do not know how
to effectively handle the OSHA penalty process. In the last
two years, Congress has mandated increases in fines by 700 percent.
By simply avoiding these fourteen common mistakes, most companies
will have a better experience when OSHA comes knocking on the
Using Communication Consultants to Rightsize Successfully.
The Journal of Technical Writing and Communication,
V.27 (No.1), 1997,pp. 87-93.
rightsizing requires that managers preserve the morale and productivity
of the remaining employees. A communication consultant can offer
invaluable guidance on how to 1) maintain employees morale,
2) help employees perceive layoffs as fair, 3) take care of
employees who have lost their jobs, 4) assist management with
layoff decisions, 5) help remaining employees cope with change,
and 6) maintain effective communication with workers. On these
sensitive topics, management will benefit from advice that is
external, expert, and soundly based.
Work Teams: Why Do They Often Fail? . SAM
Advanced Management Journal, V. 61 (No.4), 1996, pp. 31-39.
the reservations of both management and employees concerning
the long-term success of teams, along with offering concrete
recommendations on how to properly implement these groups and
how to troubleshoot common team problems. The areas addressed
are essentials for making the change to a team environment,
presenting the team concept to employees, handling lower management
resistance, and the training required to form successful teams.
Cultural Training: Preparing the Expatriate, International
HR Journal, V.8 (No.4), Winter 2000, pp. 39-44.
training, particularly that based upon sound cultural theory,
may be an answer to such difficulties as high failure rates,
the inability of expatriate spouse and family to adjust to the
new culture, low performance results on expatriate assignment,
and high turnover rates of expatriates upon repatriation.
The Aging Workforce: Searching for Ageism-Free HR Policies and
New Learning Technologies, HR Advisor: Legal
and Practical Guidance, V. 6 (No. 5), September/October
discusses how organizations can benefit from valuing older workers
and their numerous qualities, and how new technologies in distance
learning are an advantageous strategy for employers and convenient
alternative for older employees.
Complexities in Creating Career Ladders for Secretaries”
Trumble, Robert R. and Eure, Shauniquea R. HR Advisor,
Vol. 8 (no.1).
article focuses on the drawback within many organizations
regarding the continued lack of advancement opportunities provided
to office support staff, especially secretaries. With the
increase in office automation and technological advancement in
office support functions, the outlook of the secretarial and
administrative staff should have improved.
Can Improve Labor-Management Negotiations.
Management Accounting, V. LXXVI (No.12), June 1995,
accounting information be shared between labor and management
when the two sides negotiate? Would it make a difference to
either side? We conducted a five year long inquiry to test the
belief that accounting data can be used to bring about speedier,
more harmonious, and hence, lower-cost labor-management negotiations,
leading to a more productive and profitable work environment.
We found that sharing of financial data can help smooth bargaining.
Equitable Collective Bargaining Through Publicly Accessible
Financial Data .
Journal of Collective Negotiations in the Public Sector,
V.25 (No.2), 1996, pp. 89-98.
reveals how union leaders (or other employees) can obtain and
utilize publicly accessible company financial information when
their firm is reluctant to share it. The complete sharing of
financial data by management is believed to make the typical
collective bargaining process more equitable for all parties
involved. However, even if this information is not fully shared,
the union can still collect a substantial amount of company
financial data from other sources.